Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Charles Dickens Great Expectations Essay Example

Charles Dickens Great Expectations Essay Example Charles Dickens Great Expectations Paper Charles Dickens Great Expectations Paper Essay Topic: Great Expectations In The Go-Between social status often defines the behaviour of the characters towards each other. Judgement is made on appearances, property and title, as this is seen as a reliable indicator of the quality of an individuals character. In this way, Marian and Teds relationship may be seen in some way as liberating, as they love each other regardless of social status and Marian without attention to the superficial country life in which she so actively takes part. In Great Expectations, Dickens presents a society where class and status do define attitudes and relationships. Yet Dickens, through successive examples, provides evidence that this is neither an effective nor fair judge of a persons calibre, and that an enlightened society would recognise the value of individuals by who they are, not simply in terms of monetary worth. Moreover, Hartley chooses to tell The Go-Between largely from the perspective of a shy, nervous, emotionally charged, vulnerable, boy whose school seems to have denied him the expression of his childhood, consequentially leaving his wild imagination to warp events and remain oblivious to the reality of his treatment. Leos childhood innocence portrayed as green naivety by Marcus and Marion. Despite this, Leo remains loyal to the upper classes until and even at the end, agreeing to be the messenger boy one last time; he remains subservient to the assumptions of class and status, even in there deteriorated, degenerate state a the close. On the other hand, Dickens tells Great Expectations from the point of view of Pip, a social upstart unprepared to merely accept his lot, instead aspiring to a way of life he is below. Pip would have remained contented in his naivety of social inequality, as even he said. Yet for Dickens, naivety is not a defence for the maintenance of the existing social order, as how can you be truly free if innocent of the truth? Although Pip is also nai ve, and the revealing and revolution of Pip from such does not do his character any good; Dickens may argue this Pip is more a product of the effect of existing social and class assumptions, that Gentleman must remain aloof. At the end, Pip is changed, his links with the working and lower classes in Magwitch and Joe have reformed him morally; the lower classes he distanced himself from have been his salvation. Once he stops daydreaming in the false reality of a match with Estella, understands and learns the lesson of what it is to be a real gentlemen as being beyond simple monetary value; he is able to understand the plot hes in and play an active role in changing it; in working out the mystery of Estellas parentage and trying to enable Magwitch to escape. Pip is no longer a slave to the class hierarchy and class assumptions, as shown by his sleeping in his own room at the forge again and working for his living; while Leo at the end of The Go-Between remains so chained. Dickens was a social reformist and self-made gentleman, who believed in universal education for all, and worked and campaigned to achieve this aim. In Great Expectations he may be seen to offer a stark criticism of an unequal society by implicating the world of the rich with that of the poor, arguing that the wealth, prosperity and comfort of the few is one supported by the poverty, struggle and suffering of the multitude. For example, Magwitch a convict, has the same lawyer as the affluent Miss. Havisham, in Jaggers; a morally repugnant character who is prepared to see a guilty murderess, Molly, become his housekeeper, while he is just as comfortable to see an innocent defendant locked up. For Dickens, the belief in irrevocable link between wealth and morality is tenuous to say the least, and Great Expectations challenges this widely held view. Dickens champions the Victorian work ethic that salvation and morality lie in hard-work. Dickens wished to shift the role of a gentleman to one of a gentle man; he wanted to shift the emphasis from one of a life of luxury, learning and polished manners, to one of a sense of duty and vocational commitment. Many of Dickens ideas even became integrated later into Disraelis paternalistic, one-nation conservatism. Nevertheless, Dickens may not wholly align himself with Burkes philosophy that Disraeli adopted: change in order to conserve. Dickens may be motivated by the attitude to change because it is right, rather than to change to conserve the existing social order. In The Go-Between Hartley presents a class based hierarchy under threat and challenged by a new society at the turn of the century. As in Great Expectations, Hartley also, like Dickens, uses retrospective first person narration, in The Go-Between to present a society in the novel very different from that which Leo rediscovers at the end. Although not a Bildungsroman as such, we see an event that changes the rest of Leos life. The use by both authors of retrospective narration enables them to present long-term change, Dickens in Pips transformation and Hartley in Societies, allowing the authors more scope for discussion of their viewpoints. Dickens uses Pips transformed view of society, and his place in it to put forward his position. Use of first-person narration in Great Expectations is a change from omniscient third person narration and is clever in lending immediacy to the action as we find out about events as the character does, we are not told in the retrospect. Dickens older narrator switches between detachment and involvement with the plot, at times stepping in to criticise his younger self with great gusto and censure. This is also used in The Go-Between, and along with Great Expectations, both narrators intrude into the novels narrative to at times criticise their past actions or build suspense and lend importance to a future event. In Great Expectations the Bildungsroman genre chosen by Dickens, follows a Pip transformed and shaped by the novels events, allowing him to portray a broad spectrum of society; from the landed estate of the wealthy Miss Havisham, the simple contentment of hard-working Joe at the forge, to the idle lifestyle of two gentlemen in the city. Dickens novel does not appear to discuss the aristocracy in great detail beyond the aspirations of Mrs. Pocket, instead focusing more on the lower classes with which Dickens was so fascinated. Hartley, unlike Dickens, choose to set his novel in the most part in the luxurious, aristocratic, setting of Brandham Hall. There is little plot elsewhere; there is a glimpse of a harsh, competitive, boarding school governed by strict rules of conduct, in which emotion is almost forbid and class and status govern how the boys deal with each other. Were through his curse on Jenkins and Strode, Leo earns the respect and increased status amongst his fellow pupils. The school itself is almost a hierarchy, with the strongest bullying the weakest, there appears to be some of Darwins survival of the fittest there. The boys admire strength and money, and live in fear of revealing emotion, seen as a weak frailty. It is Leos curse and the grand sounding name of his modest home; Court Place which he shares with his nervous, reticent, widowed mother, that gain him an invitation from The Maudsleys. Brandham Hall however, manages in some ways to cover a broader spectrum of society than Great Expectations display of country and city life. As although in essence, the focus is on the upper-echelons of society in the middle and upper classes, rather than those of lower status, whom we see but briefly in the cricket game and supper with the village. With Brandham Hall as his setting, Hartley is able to, and does, represent class distinction in action. Could it be that in the notable absence of regard for the lower classes in the world of the upper classes he is making a similar point to Dickens; that the wealth of the few is based on the exclusion of the many? For example, Triningham the gentleman farmer relies on the working farmer in Ted Burgess for his living, and that it is only on Leos return years later that he remembers the prettiest side to the house, when he was there he was more interested in the outhouses of the backyard. The distance between The Hall and The Village is separated not only by wealth and status, but also in the physical landscape there is distance between the two, which almost makes them appear to be separate entities or separate worlds. It is the impoverished middle class in Leo who makes easier the link between the two spheres, by being the messenger between Ted and Marion. This link; an abandonment of the rules that govern the hierarchical structure has devastating consequences, perhaps a warning from Hartley against abandoning the security and sense of place made known by the class structure for centuries. Clearly, Hartleys views on class and status are more ambiguous than those of Dickens, but overall I believe that Hartley conforms to class assumptions and tries to reaffirm the importance of class and status. Hartley, however, as we have and will see, has a very different approach to Dickens on the subject of class and status. Like Leo, Hartley seems to look with nostalgia on the long line of Viscount Trininghams, Hugh being the ninth of these, found engraved in the church. Set against the backdrop of the house of God, a sense of value is placed in the tradition and history that this image invokes. Perhaps even reflecting the feudal belief in Gods acquiescence and ordination of the nobilitys God-given right to rule. In Great Expectations there is no such argument present, church seems corrupted by its wealth and emphasis on social position and irrelevant to the working class people who attend every week, some more conscientiously than others. The lower classes such as Joe can not go as they are and as they are comfortable, appearance is important as a display of respect and diffidence. Dickens throughout the rest of the novel then attacks the superficiality of appearance as having any value or importance at all in the judgement of character. For Dickens there is no value in tradition for traditions sake; he was not an unbeliever, but wanted to transform the churches role from order and a means of class control but to real concern and compassion for the people. Dickens would attack appearance as either being a good basis on which to judge character or a good foundation on which to judge strength of Christian conviction. Hartley seems to admire the class distinctions found in church, while Dickens might view it as apposed to Christian belief. Dickens criticises those who aspire to titles as seen by his parody of the Pockets, while Hartley respects those who hold one such as Triningham, and criticises those who aspire to the lifestyle of those who want one in the Maudsleys. Triningham exemplifies all that was good about the aristocracy; gentle manners, grace and elegance, and treating Leo with the utmost kindness, whom he saves from embarrassment when explaining his title and when Leo is given an inappropriate tie. It is the middle class Marion who exploits and uses Leo, not Triningham, who makes it clear that Leo is a messenger for the Gods. Triningham is scarred from his patriotic fight during the lengthily and protracted Boer War, perhaps symbolic of a scarred, fatally flawed, yet loyal and patriotic, aristocracy. Trininghams early death may also foretell of doomed nobility, and in Marion, conquered by Ted, the working farmer, that in the future the lower classes will usurp the higher ones. This is again shown by the fact that the 10th and subsequent 11th Viscount Trininghams are descendants of Ted, not of Hugh, and so are illegitimate. The ancestral lineage has been broken. Whether or not this embodies the idea that the old aristocracy having survived, yet modified, by the events of a turbulent half-century and that the hierarchical order has prevailed even in the face of struggle; or whether this actually signifies a healthy merger of the classes (Anne Mulkeen) is a matter for debate. Some may argue that in the 11th Viscount Triningham we see an aristocracy besieged, and a shadow of what it once was. The 11th Viscount looks like Ted, a working farmer, and Leo notes none of Trininghams natural grace. The 11th Viscount avoids the past in Marion, rather than finding refuge and console in it as it may be seen that the 9th Viscount had, and the 11th is reduced to living in less that half the house, with the rest let to a girls school. While others may still see by the aristocracys survival, despite being found reduced in importance, as an enduring symbol of history and tradition and irrefutable evidence of its value. Even so, for Dickens, as found in Great Expectations aristocracy and the wealthy need to accept their place and duty toward wider society. Trininghams chivalric, but perhaps unreal sentiment that nothing is ever a Ladys fault is perhaps the reasoning behind his acceptance of a Marion already tainted by the touch of a man, saving her from disgrace, and explains his unsuspecting attitude before the relationship was revealed. Trininghams assumption of Marians innocence is charming, yet conceivably recognisable as ignorance. Marian seems to ridicule him almost, as even she admits his loyalty, whilst admitting that she was planning on carrying on her illicit affair with Ted whilst married to Triningham, and seeing his suicide as an expression of Teds weakness rather than of his accepting responsibility. Also Hartley portrays a caring, nervous and somewhat ineffective mother in Mrs. Colston, who perhaps fails to understand the boy she sees so little of. Tragically, if she had followed Leos confused intension in his instructions than the tragedy may have been averted, or at least Leo might not have lost his innocence and faith in the world of human emotions with which Ted explained his love for Marion and spooning. Presumably Triningham would not blame Mrs. Colston at all for Leos tragedy. Trininghams chivalry then is not rewarded and this outcome can perhaps be seen to be why Hartley may be criticising the destruction of good society. At the same time, Dickens aim in writing Great Expectations was to shift the meaning of being a Gentleman away from that of petty class distinction, polished manners and a life of leisure to one of social responsibility and vocational commitment; of gentlemen not just enjoying their position in society, but working to improve the position and welfare of others. This is shown by Pips dramatic transformation from Gentleman to gentle man, and the moral regeneration that is the result of Pip finding employment. Class and status are seemingly interlinked with, and the result of money from the start. The servants at Brandham are even deferential to Leo, who is not expected to pick up or fold his own clothes; Marcus even tells him not too! Leo is not rich in comparison to the Maudsleys but is in terms of society at the time, the social hierarchy must be obeyed. Hartley, in The Go-Between also presents the aspiring middle class in the Maudlseys whose social rise is the result of money. Although, arguably, Hartleys Maudsleys do not gain greatly from their rise, which contributes to the mental downfall of Mrs. Maudsley in Marions affair, with Denys and Marcus later dying in the Great War, the Maudsleys do not last, and it is a Triningham who holds possession of the house when Leo returns after his long absence. Despite the 11th Viscount being a descendent of Ted and Marion, the title has endured, the Maudsleys have not. Hartley thus argues that there is more to class distinction then money, more too aristocratic superiority than monetary wealth; indeed Triningham is less well off than the Maudsleys, however they still feel the need to defer to him, as if he were the head of the household. The Maudsleys not only feel insecure, but recognise Trininghams supremacy.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Show Me The Money 8 Good-Paying Part-Time Jobs

Show Me The Money 8 Good-Paying Part-Time Jobs part-time jobs are lucrative and plentiful, but finding them means knowing where to look. deciding on the type of job you want based on your skills and needs is a good first step. for instance, if you have small children and wish to work when they are at school, your search might focus on morning jobs. finding the right job for you is easier with thejobnetwork online search platform. focus on jobs that suit your needsjobs vary according to training, experience and location. some part-time jobs let you work from home. this saves on commuting time and cost. it also accommodates parents who would like to be at home with their children. other jobs might require a degree or specific experience in the field. depending on where you live, certain types of part-time jobs may be plentiful, and the pay range might differ. this post focuses on eight part-time jobs that pay well and offer flexibility.dog walkingthis part-time job is best suited to individuals who like dogs. you might need a city license. in addition, being bonded and having insurance protects you and your clients. both provide a level of security for your business. this part-time job pays between $15 and $75 per hour.tutoring studentsthis position is online or in person and suits many grad students or teachers as an excellent source of extra income. tutoring for sat or medical school and law school entrance exams are higher paying. the range for tutoring depends on the subject matter and pays from $15 to $200 per hour.web designerthis part-time job requires learned skills and a work portfolio. being able to do the job with a good turnaround time enables you to earn more. some design firms hire freelance designers at an hourly rate of $50. taking courses online or at a brick and mortar design school or college helps you move into this field.breakfast restaurant server or staffthis is sought after by those who need to have afternoons free. such establishments close by afternoon. the pay scale ranges depend on the geographic area. restaurants in this category pay up to $4 per hour plus tips.hair stylistbeing a hair stylist takes training and a license to provide this service. however, once attained, you are able to work as much or as little as you want depending on the salon. hairstylists make about $10 per hour, with differences depending on the salon and its location.bartenderdepending on the establishment, many bartender positions require training, certification for safe food handling such as servsafe may be required. this job bays an average of $10 to $75 per hour including tips. some bartenders favor events over working at a particular facility.tax preparation/accountantthis position can be seasonal or done at home. some individuals work for a tax preparation business while others set up their own businesses. tax preparers typically earn between $8 and $23 per hour as an employee, but self-employed workers can set an acceptable fee for clients.fitness instructorsbeing fit is enviabl e, and many job seekers establish their own fitness business or work at a gym. getting certified in such areas as pilates or yoga helps raise your fee, and the average pay is about $20 per hour.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Project Plan For Access Control System In a Dormitory Case Study

Project Plan For Access Control System In a Dormitory - Case Study Example There are following five major tasks that are required for installation of the ACS. It is assumed that the college has all the technical, electrical and mechanical human resources required for this project. Furthermore, it is also assumed that the college has already accurately met all the requirements mentioned above (Cowling, 2008). Planning The first task is the project planning from the initiation to the closure. In this task, the subtasks include development of project plan (given below), resource plan, financial plan, and quality plan. Procurement The second task of the project is to procure all the abovementioned equipment. The subtasks of the procurement include development of Request for Proposals (RFP), publishing RFP, meetings for evaluation of technical and financial proposals received from different bidders. The RFP will contain all the equipment and application software required for installation of ACS; in response, bidders/suppliers will submit their proposals. In order to evaluate the proposals of the bidders, meeting will be held both internally and with all the bidders. Installation All the procured equipment will be installed in the premises of the hostel. The first subtask includes installation of the access control equipment and the performance of related electrical and mechanical work. The second subtask will be the installation of computer software and hardware and the establishment of Local Area Network (LAN).... It is assumed that the college has all the technical, electrical and mechanical human resources required for this project. Furthermore, it is also assumed that the college has already accurately met all the requirements mentioned above (Cowling, 2008). Planning The first task is the project planning from the initiation to the closure. In this task, the subtasks include development of project plan (given below), resource plan, financial plan, and quality plan. Procurement The second task of the project is to procure all the abovementioned equipment. The subtasks of the procurement include development of Request for Proposals (RFP), publishing RFP, meetings for evaluation of technical and financial proposals received from different bidders. The RFP will contain all the equipment and application software required for installation of ACS; in response, bidders/suppliers will submit their proposals. In order to evaluate the proposals of the bidders, meeting will be held both internally and with all the bidders. Installation All the procured equipment will be installed in the premises of the hostel. The first subtask includes installation of the access control equipment and the performance of related electrical and mechanical work. The second subtask will be the installation of computer software and hardware and the establishment of Local Area Network (LAN). A configuration plan will be developed in order to customize/integrate the software application (Visitor Management System) with already/existing deployed software systems in the hostel. In order to establish a LAN, a network diagram/structure will be developed, defining network topology, Internet Protocol scheme, and cabling standards. Testing A thorough testing will be performed through operational and

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Canadian Senate Reform Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Canadian Senate Reform - Essay Example However, all the hard work to modify the governing body has been failing for the past several years. Ultimately, the present government resolution is to accomplish the task of reformation. The conformist government, which is under the Prime Minister, suggests cutting down the period senators’ rule and choosing them by ballot. However, the government is operating into tough political oppositions. The Senate in Canada keeps hold of a central position in the history of the country (Smith, 2009).Without a doubt, the alliances made in Canada for the past decades were because of the accord to take in the governing body as it is now incorporated. The legislative body of Canada is an exclusive establishment, being the only succeeding chamber contained by the Canadian coalition, as well as the lone in the western part whose affiliates are all chosen. This paper will highlight the bill meant for the agenda of Canadian reform and some of the main contents of the bill. It will also explai n the major provisions of the Act as well as the conditions for the senate candidates. The script will as well talk about the arguments made by the leaders concerning the issue of government reform. It will outline the doubts of the senators as well as the arguments made by the opposition, and the side supporting the reform. ... Lastly, this paper will give recommendations regarding this matter of the Canadian reform. It will discuss the importance of the changes to be made in the government body as well as what effects the reform could have to the country. Bill for the Agenda In the year 2006, the Canada’s Prime Minister conformist government had established two bills to change the senate. One was to institute restricted conditions for senators, reinstating the system on hand of appointment until one reaches 75 years. The other bill was to launch consultative voting for the legislature with the Prime Minister appointing the conquerors of the election. The â€Å"House of Commons† and the Senate heard the bills but neither of them was ratified into ruling (Smith, 2009). In the first session of the Canada’s forty-first parliament, Bill C-7 was proposed. The bill was based on an Act with regard to choosing of senators as well as adjusting the constitution Act, 1867 regarding Senate period r estrictions. The first part of the endorsement ascertains a structure for selecting Senate appointments contenders from the territories as well as provinces. Two main ideologies would be relevant to the procedure of election. The first one was that, the Prime Minister, in advocating Senate candidates to the â€Å"Governor General† for a region or province, would be compelled to put into regard, names from a list of entrants presented by the regional or provincial administration. The second principle was that the contenders list would be resolved by a selection held according to the regional or provincial laws ratified to put the framework into practice. The second part of the endorsement modifies the occupancy of senators who are to be called

Friday, January 24, 2020

Animal Cruelty Must Stop Essay -- Equality for Animals

Meat is considered to be a go-to meal for many at breakfast, lunch, and dinner. What most do not think about is where their burgers or chicken wings are really coming from. Animals live dangerous lives in enclosures and cages, where they are forced to eat and sleep against their own will. Peter Singer discusses some of these issues in his article, â€Å"Animal Liberation† and how this freedom will take time and commitment. Singer talks about the harsh treatments of these farm animals and the factory farming that goes on behind the scenes. He knows that animals cannot express their feelings through words, so their actions should be acknowledged instead. Because the animals are not necessarily kept healthy and taken care of, eating animals or their byproducts is not as beneficial as an individual would think and therefore, to remedy the situation, they ought to have an equal life to humans. Peter Singer is a Professor at Princeton University, graduate of the University of Melbourne and Oxford University, and an author and editor of dozens of books. Ethics are very important to him, because he is an animal liberationist and fights for the rights for these animals. Singer states, â€Å"A liberation movement demands an expansion of our moral horizons, so that practices that were previously regarded as natural and inevitable are now seen as tolerable† (Singer 205). In his article, he discusses his thoughts on liberations going on today. Mentioning the different liberations only adds to his stand, because describing how other people feel towards issues allows for his views to be equal. Some of the liberations Singer notes are Gay Liberation, Black Liberation, and Women’s Rights. People that support these movements know how ... ...ns being fed to the animals that are just going to be killed. Around 70% of antibiotics go to livestock to prevent diseases in CAFOs where animals live all crammed together. Some cons may be that eating meat has been an essential part of human evolution for about 2.3 million years. Eating meat allowed brain size to grow and develop as well as taste buds evolving to crave the taste of meat. Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. Harper Perennial, 2005. http://www.amazon.com/Fast-Food-Nation-Dark-All- American/dp/0060938455 There are different types of fast food and the â€Å"meat† we are eating. Many unhealthy or clean ways of eating and touching food. Including the type of food people eat in fast food places.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

The Forest – Creative Writing

Descriptive Writing – The forest. [pic] A crisp winter morning and there was a frosty chill in the air. A sweet surrendering scent of the moist morning dew that cascades all around the sublime forest. The mixed cool autumn leaves from the tall trees lay scattered on the forest floor; they were in the motion of turning a brittle brown. There was the sound of shattered glass that emphasised the leaves being crunched, as if you were to step on them, pushing their papery remains deep into the brilliant white snow, which lined the ground like a fresh white cotton sheet. The passive and daunting forest has the appeal of a forgotten land, which has been lost in time. The isolated forest remained in a capsule, untouched by the destructive essence of man. The dark shadows of the voluminous trees and puzzled bushes had become the structure of the forest. The trees stood proud and tall as protectors of the exigent grounds, as the impregnated bushes that had consumed the hard regions of the forest, concealed the land from beneath the vibrant portals of the open sky. The isolated forest has the appearance of winter romance which blossomed, alluring your mind deeper and deeper into the enchanted land. As the wintery sun rose in a timely hurry, as if trying to make up for setting so early the evening before, the sun bloomed into the sky with a warm mellow glow. Sending what was left of the dull moon packing until his next stint overlooking the night. The dusky sky, was a brilliantly bright baby blue, and perched picturesquely on the autumn branches of the trees in the forest below. As the morning developed the sounds of young birds began to fulfil the air with a delicious spritz. They chirped, tweeted and warbled incessantly. The lake had been hardened by the sharp cold blitz of an icy frost. The translucent water was bound as a smooth solid and the particles of the water reflected a sheer shine of gleam and glitz, that could only be disrupted by the sharp razor blades that ice skates posses. Whispers of the remaining snowflakes were on top of the tranquil ice; these blew in the breeze over into the depths of the forest. As the mellow winter sun rises over the hard reflective lake the water shows parts of itself melting into a liquid, which is so cold that it could freeze in an absolute instance. The sheen of reflection on the arctic water from the glowing sun sparkles in the tranquil air, with the light reflecting, unique combinations of blue hues and pearlescent purples. The land is isolate and derelict from the prospects of busy city life. Tranquillity and idealistic bliss are forth seen in the deep depths of the forest as well as the environments sublime intake of the wintry season. The tall trees posses a sweet serenity that keeps all safe in the forest from delinquent harm and stark human demoralisation. Sheets of thick white cloudy snow preserve the gritty grounds beneath as well as the silky sheets of ice that protect fresh organic water.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

A Symbol Of Palestine - 1844 Words

Kanafani uses powerful language to describe how each refugee was a symbol of Palestine. He shows Abu Quais’ character and his deep connection to the land. â€Å"Abu Quais rested on the damp ground and the earth began to throb under him and tired heartbeats, which trembled through the grains of sand and penetrated the cells of his body.†[1] He represents that thousand of Palestinians who were born in Palestine and who spent their entire lives taking care of this land. The second refugee Assad is the symbol of desperateness and strength of the Palestinian soul because he lives in a land where he is looked down. The youngest of all three is Marwan who, â€Å"wanted to become a doctor. He used to tell his mother that Zakaria would never understand what it meant for someone to get an education because he had left school when he left Palestine.†[2] Marwan is the symbol of the Palestinian children who were stripped of their childhood and education. After the war Palesti nians were not granted the right to return and as â€Å"the abandoned villages fell into ruin or were bulldozed or settled and as more Jewish immigrants poured into the country and were accommodated in the abandoned Arab homes. The physical possibility of substantial repatriation grew more remote.†[3] The last character and protagonist Abu Khaziaran the smuggler who takes the responsibility to take the three men to Kuwait symbolizes the neighboring Arab States. Although selfish like the Arab states he did risk his life to save theShow MoreRelatedThe Underground War in Gaza by Joe Sacco1514 Words   |  7 Pagesthe comic book â€Å"The Underground War in Gaza† on July 6, 2003. In his comic he exposes the conflicts between Israel and Palestine. 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TheRead MoreSaint Matthew Essay644 Words   |  3 Pageswas a Jew. Before his conversion, he was a publican, which was a tax collector, by profession. Not much is really known about Matthew later on in his life. His beginning of apostolic activity started in the communities of Palestine. He wrote for his countrymen in Palestine and composed his Gospel in his native Aramaic. This is refereed to as the â€Å"Hebrew tongue† which is mentioned in the Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles. It was written to convince Jewish readers that their anticipated MessiahRead MoreSummary Of The Departure The Arrival821 Words   |  4 Pagesabout her experience immigrating to Toronto from the West (Western) Banks of war-torn Palestine and Somaia-Carten shares her experience immigrating to Vancouver from Kenya, in hopes of living a better life. Both stories employ symbolism to accentuate the struggles of migrating to a new country. In â€Å"The Departure-The Arrival,† Warawra uses symbolism to indicate the struggles she faced immigrating to Canada from Palestine. At the time of Warawra’s immigration, there was a war being fought in her countryRead MoreThe Culture Of The Middle East1476 Words   |  6 PagesIt is those names that the Middle Eastern people refer to the actual dance that is normally used by different dialect. The dance is universal irrespective of someone’s roots and cultural background. Whether one comes from Iraq, Lebanon, or even Palestine, the dance is still the same. The term Dabka basically means the act of stomping (Haugbolle, 2010). The dance found its inception back in the early 1990s before the segmentation of the Middle East took place. The Middle East was segmented throughRead MoreDifferences Between Islam And Christianity941 Words   |  4 Pagesword of God. (Christian answers, 2016) Christian religion was born in Palestine, in a small land on the Eastern Medit erranean sea. A promised land considered by the Jews due to, its location it was ruled by a succession of foreign powers. Throughout history, Egypt and Assyria fought over it. Then Babylon conquered Assyria and Palestine following after the Persians where led by Cyrus. Allowing the Jews to return from exile, Palestine was still under rule. Rome took Jerusalem in 63 B.C ruling at the timeRead MoreYasser Arafat In The Move Toward a Palestinian State Essay813 Words   |  4 Pages Do not let the olive branch fall from my hand. This quote sums up Arafats ambivalence. He claims he wants peace but if that requires terror, he seems prepared for anything. However the fact that he mentioned the olive branch, a symbol for peace, gave good publicity for the cause and this was also the first time a Palestinian had managed to speak to the UN so this was an important step in the fight for a Palestinian state because there would be a chance for discussion

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Differences Between IPD And Meta-Examination - 1605 Words

large sample size the model use as well as the capability to directly authenticate the model also it can disclose their analytic advantage. Both IPD and APD meta-investigations are viewed as valuable for outlining the aftereffects of various individual examinations that are each too little to give substantial outcomes.Combined investigations of APD is adroitly the same as meta-examinations of independent analysis form on IPD including assessing study- calculating treatment impacts, surveying heterogeneity, evaluating the size and the impact of the heterogeneity. It is also evident that as well as substantial cost and years of exertion, IPD meta-examinations frequently require the unprecedented participation of every unique agent,†¦show more content†¦Once in a while does an IPD meta-examination give access to the patient information, for example, the patients, medical history, as well as a patients lab test. Or maybe, access is given to information separated at the time of care for every patient and the genuine precision of the APD is usually not confirmed. Haidich, A. B. (2010)It is contended that the benefit of IPD is the capacity to check the information recorded in the distributed trial. Haidich, A. B. (2010) While information checking is now and then thought of as, a exorbitant and tedious process and for this reason the process is seldom attempted. Haidich, A. B. (2010) At the point when the checked information has been contrasted with unchecked information, contrasts with predicted results are uncommon Even though all info rmation is accessible as opposed to just brief information, Haidich, A. B. (2010)examinations are for the most part in view of meta-investigation estimators of treatment results as in APD meta-examinations. Haidich, A. B. (2010)A few examinations have shown that when the mixture of studies is the same and comparative measures are applied, the results capacity is calculated for suitable strategies are basically the same as for IPD and APD meta-investigation. Haidich, A. B. (2010) Another conceivable benefit to IPD meta - investigations is the capacity to revise information from a past distribution this gives an individual an extended period to make inquiries with aShow MoreRelatedJuvenile Delinquency And The Nature Of Police Juvenile9755 Words   |  40 Pagesdisrespectful, whether a weapon is present, and, or whether a supervisor is present (Myers, 2004). Initially based on Myers’ (2004) examination of police-juvenile encounters in urban settings (Indianapolis, Minnesota and St. Petersburg, Florida), the present study examined police-juvenile encounters in the rural areas of the Mississippi Delta. It sought to describe the relationship between the types of behaviors exhibited by the police in their dealings with the juveniles, such as the police use of authorityRead MoreTraining and Development Literature Review Essay14850 Words   |  60 Pagespreferences and expectations and work styles of current trends of employees (Callender, 2003; CIPD, 2006; AGR, 2006) but implications for the design and implementation of development schemes have rarely been considered. The idea of generational differences is overstated here by some writers who acknowledged that experiences today are very different from those of a few years back, and different approaches to training and development are required (King, 2003). (Connor et al., 2003) have questionedRead MoreLeadership Development42674 Words   |  171 Pages......................................................................14 3.2.3 Issues in relation to management skills and competencies.....................................16 3.2.4 Ethnic minority groups in management and leadership and gender differences ....17 3.3 Management and leadership development: current state, recent and future trends.......18 3.3.1 Volume and nature of management and leadership development in the UK .........18 3.3.2 Trends in management and leadership development.....

Sunday, December 22, 2019

The Global Financial Crisis Of The Usa - 1383 Words

The recent global financial turmoil started on July 2007 ,mainly in the USA and spread among developed nations in the later part of 2008 and subsequently shifted to the developing nations .this crisis consisted of some prime drawbacks not only for the developed countries but also for developing countries .the most talked about issue in the recent financial arena in the global financial crisis ,which started to show its effect in the middle of the year 2007.the turmoil ,however ,was rooted in the subprime mortgage crisis that began in mid -2007.the massive global crises ,already being dubbed by some as the great Recession since the great depression of the 1930s,began since the end of 2007with the subprime montage crisis in the USA .it subsequently and quickly spread to the international financial system, resulting in negative growth rates in key countries and regions ,including the US,UK and Japan .many developing countries were also infected by the contagion, from China, Brazil and South Africa to the countries of South Asia and Latin America. Asian countries were more affected by a strong recession in the USA Bangladesh Bangladesh is a developing country and globalization integrates it with the global market in diverse areas. Bangladesh is equally affected by this global turmoil in the short run as well as in The long run. It is very difficult to predict the scenario in the long term; however, short term impact should duly be taken into consideration. The globalShow MoreRelatedWhy India Recovered Quickly From The 2008 Global Crisis Essay1594 Words   |  7 Pagesrecovered quickly from the 2008 global crisis? Vivek Shah MBA AF 629 December 12, 2016 Introduction It’s the most heard term about the global economy in the recent years and it’s the year we have been always hearing about its 2008. We all have been a part of it in some or the other way and all the major economies had been affected by the global turmoil which eventually lead to the worst situation after the Great depression of 1929. The sub-prime crisis in USA which lead to great recession whereRead MoreFinancial Crisis And Its Effects On Businesses, Governments, And Consumers978 Words   |  4 PagesThe worldwide impact of the recent financial crisis outlines the importance of having a decent understanding of crises. Latest episode has definitely showed that status of economic as well as the financial performance is greatly affected by financial turmoil. During the crisis, world stock markets have been collapsed, largest financial institutions have been bought out or fallen, and the wealthiest nations like UAE, UK of USA had to stand up and aid their financial system s as well as the economic onesRead MoreThe World Experienced A Tremendous Financial Crisis Essay1131 Words   |  5 Pagestremendous financial crisis which rooted from the U.S housing market; moreover, it is considered by many economists as one of the worst recession since the Great Depression in 1930s. After posing a huge effect on the U.S economy, the financial crisis expanded to Europe and the rest of the world. It brought governments down, ruined economies, crumble financial corporations and impoverish individual lives. For example, the financial crisis has resulted in the collapse of massive financial institutionsRead MoreEuropean Financial Crisis1172 Words   |  5 Pagesreport of EBE: â€Å"European Financial Crisis† [pic] Rob van persie IBMS PT 2009 Preface This report has been written as an assignment for IBMS student. I have chosen to research European financial crisis; which has underlined the difficulty of taking concerned action in Europe because its economies are far integrated than governing structures. My research was focused the world crisis but especially the financial crisis between European countries and the inconvenientRead MoreThe Financial Crisis Of 2007 And 20091594 Words   |  7 PagesPrior to the crisis in 1907, individual banks such as JP Morgan and the reserve banks of New York were considered full service financial institutions. In the year 1913, the Federal Reserve System was created by congress to help stabilize the financial market by acting as the lender of last resort to the banking institutions (federalreserve.gov). Nonetheless the great depression still hit the economy between 1929 and 1933 which led to the stock market crash and market share value decrease by 80% (historyRead MoreGlobal Financial Crisis : Its Causes And The Global Responses Essay1592 Words   |  7 PagesAssignment topic: Global financial crisis: its cause and the global responses Introduction The global financial crisis or economy crisis is commonly believed to have begun in July 2007 with credit crunch, when a loss of confidence by the US investors in the value of sub-prime mortgages caused a liquidity crisis. On the other hand, due to the big changes that took place over the last 20 to 30 years in the worldwide economy and the influence of 2007 financial crisis, it has re-emerged as one of theRead MoreCentral Causes of the Global Financial Crisis1295 Words   |  6 PagesCentral causes of the global financial crisis By Norbert Tallosi The global financial crisis of 2007-present caused the largest meltdown of major economies worldwide since the great depression of 1930. It involved the collapse of large investment banks and as a result affected all markets in the western world. A number of books, newspaper articles and media reports have been written in relation to what caused the crisis; due to the vast source of information and discussion on the topic, originsRead MoreKeynesian Theory During The Great Depression949 Words   |  4 Pagesrates to name the few. Financial crisis that occurred in 2007-2008, boosted the debate among politicians, economists, scholars over the way the economics policies should be conducted. To begin with, Keynes came up with a theory that challenged monetarist model, that was widely employed in 1930s, as a reflection of the unprecedented events of the Great Depression. From Keynes’ point of view, it was the failure of the free market theory that led the world into financial crisis. Keynes stressed the factRead MoreBusiness Cycle1566 Words   |  7 Pagescycle will be also demonstrated in the second part. The final part of this essay will analyse and compare the situation of Australian economy and USA economy in period of 10 years since 1998 based on the concept of â€Å"the business cycle†. In addition, this is the writer’s opinion about the business cycle relied on these above data about exhibit Australian and USA economy performance. WHAT IS THE BUSINESS CYCLE? According to Burns (1946, p.3): â€Å"business cycle is a kind of fluctuation happened in aggregateRead MoreGlobal Financial Crisis 1067 Words   |  5 PagesThe best evidence so far for the existence of an American empire, despite denials to the contrary, is the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). The persistent removal of restrictions and oversights on the domestic financial system of the US, combined with the decisions of individual firms, other governments and foreign financial organisations, culminated in the singe largest depreciation of assets and currency valuations in history, surpassing even the Great Depression in its extents. The United States

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Disneyland Resort Paris Case Study Free Essays

I believe that managers should adapt the resort to more local cultures for the 15th Anniversary in 2007. Even if Disney adapts to the local culture there is still going to be a sense of the American Disney World in the theme. Disney has expanded to countries all over the world yet they cannot change the fact that the characters are the same wherever they go. We will write a custom essay sample on Disneyland Resort Paris Case Study or any similar topic only for you Order Now There is always going to be a Winnie the Pooh and Lion King and cultures all over the world view the American made movies. However; like mentioned in the case, I believe that even though very little of Disney’s core product needs adaptation, they must focus and change how they position and sell their product in each of the markets. To one market Mickey may mean something totally different to another. In order to be successful I believe that they do have to alter the way they do things from country to country and culture to culture. If they do not adapt to the local culture they could see more financial instability like they did in the past and they may see less people coming to their parks in Paris. One of the mistakes mentioned in the case was about how Disney did not serve alcohol in the park when it first opened and how they had to change that to meet the needs of their consumers and even this minor mess-up was not forgotten by the locals and it took them a long time to get over it. I think Disney could implement my suggestion by looking deeper into the cultures of the surrounding countries and the people who travel to the Paris park and research what they want and what would make their experience better. Also, look into their cultures and figure out how they like to do things. There are numerous countries and cultures that travel to Disneyland Paris and it is hard to get a grip on who the average consumer is and what they look like. This is where Disney really needs to meet the needs of numerous culture and people. How to cite Disneyland Resort Paris Case Study, Free Case study samples

Friday, December 6, 2019

Promoting Policies and Macroeconomic Stability †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Promoting Policies and Macroeconomic Stability. Answer: Introduction The aim of this paper is to discuss about the stable equilibrium in the economy in both microeconomic and macroeconomic concept. Equilibrium is termed as stable if the returns to the initial equilibrium position through process of counteracting forces as it are deviated from equilibrium point due to external disturbances. According to the stable equilibrium of Marshall, disturbance in equilibrium quantity occurs. On the other hand, disturbance in equilibrium price occurs in Walrasian stable equilibrium concept (Dierker, 2012). In both circumstances, the position of equilibrium is restored. The paper also highlights on the determination of existence of stable equilibrium in the Australian economy. The study also recognizes the necessity of government intervention when external shocks deviates the economy from stable equilibrium position. Stability in economic equilibrium can be explained by both macroeconomic and microeconomic stability. Microeconomic stability in the economy is discussed with the help of market equilibrium shown in the figure below. This figure shows that the market equilibrium occurs at the intersection point between the demand curve (DD) as well as the supply curve (SS) (Rader, 2014). Now, owing to some disturbance, the price of a commodity rises to OP0 corresponding to which the quantity demanded is OQ0 and quantity supplied is OQ0 (Sutherland and Hoeller, 2012). However, as OQ0 exceeds OQ0, it outcomes in excess supply that is shown by Q0Q0. As the objective of the seller is to maximize profit, they would decrease production. Thus, price falls and ultimately reaches the initial point OP ** owing to competition among the retailers. In addition, if the price of a commodity falls to OP1 owing to disturbance , then the quantity demanded (OQ1) exceeds quantity supplied (OQ1) that results in excess demand. However, the seller increases the price of that particular commodity , which again shifts the price level to OP**. This highlights stable market equilibrium in free market. Economic stability in macroeconomic terms is defined by AD-AS (aggregate demand and aggregate supply) model. However, economic stability occurs when the AD curve intersects with the AS curve. This macroeconomic stability acts as shield against exposure to fluctuations in currency and interest rate in worldwide market. High fluctuation in currency, debt burdens and price leads to economic crisis and downfall in GDP of the nation (Creel, et al., 2015). Additionally, the government adopts monetary as well as budgetary policy for stabilizing inflation and hence proper public finances leads to long term economic growth. These policies help the economy to recover from bad phase and hence there occurs trade off. Determining whether stable equilibrium exists in the Australian economy As Australia has been known as mixed market economy, the decisions regarding production and distribution are taken with the help of government intervention. The current state of the Australian economy reflects that the economy is in stable equilibrium (Sangnier, 2013). The macroeconomic indicators including GDP, consumer price index (CPI), total employment, strength of the currency, interest rates and trade balance helps in appraising the stability for increasing growth of the economy. The main aim of the Australian government is to sustain economic growth by retaining low inflation and limiting debts as well as liabilities (Borio, 2012). Moreover, the government tries to intervene in the business as the fluctuation in business cycle impacts on the GDP of the economy. Australian government adopts macroeconomic policy for controlling price level as it linked with stability as well as growth of the economy. In this study, inflation rate and GDP is considered for illustrating the existe nce of stable equilibrium in the Australian economy. The GDP of the Australia has been stable over the recent period which reflects that there has been slight fluctuation in consumer spending, government expenditure, investment in business and balance of trade. Though there has been slight variation in GDP of the economy, it did not influence the stability of the economy. The Australian government tries to keep inflation rate low by implementing proper monetary policy. Recent study reflects that the inflation rate in this economy has been recorded within the target rate, which is 2-3% set by the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA). The figure below shows stable inflation rate in Australia. Australian government restores economic stability by adopting monetary as well as fiscal policies (Angeli et al., 2012). They implements fiscal policies by using budgetary process and enhance the nation by running deficit budget. On the other hand, they also implements monetary policy through operations in the market that in turn affects the rates of interest. Thus, they keeps the interest rate low for stabilizing the economy. The two instruments that are devised by the Australian government for stabilizing the economy are Automatic stabilizers and Discretionary stabilizers. As automatic stabilizers affects the aggregate demand in countercyclical way, the government adjust budget by over viewing on the current economic phase (Agnor and Pereira da Silva, 2012). This tool includes tax receipts such as PAYTG tax, GST etc. On the contrary, discretionary stabilizer involves reforms in tax structure, government expenditure and in other sectors. It requires budget reforms that in turn influence aggregate demand and stability in the economy. For example, Appreciation of Australian dollar in mining boom in relation to other currencies helped in stabilizing inflationary pressures and ensures that Australian economy receive price signals for facilitating resource flow. It also benefits the mining boom by raising purchasing power of the households of Australia. Conclusion It can be concluded from this assignment that stable equilibrium exists in the Australian economy over the last few years. The Australian government intervenes for stabilizing the economy by implementing different stabilizing instruments. Hence, intervention of the Australian government is required for making economy stable as it topples during the phases of business cycles. References Agnor, P. R., Pereira da Silva, L. A. (2012). Macroeconomic stability, financial stability, and monetary policy rules.International Finance,15(2), 205-224. Angeli, D., Amrit, R., Rawlings, J. B. (2012). On average performance and stability of economic model predictive control.IEEE transactions on automatic control,57(7), 1615-1626. Borio, C. (2014). The financial cycle and macroeconomics: What have we learnt?.Journal of Banking Finance,45, 182-198. Creel, J., Hubert, P., Labondance, F. (2015). Financial stability and economic performance.Economic Modelling,48, 25-40. Dierker, E. (2012).Topological methods in Walrasian economics(Vol. 92). Springer Science Business Media. Rader, T. (2014).Theory of general economic equilibrium. Academic Press. Sangnier, M. (2013). Does trust favor macroeconomic stability?.Journal of Comparative Economics,41(3), 653-668. Sutherland, D., Hoeller, P. (2013). Growth-promoting policies and macroeconomic stability.

Friday, November 29, 2019

Problems and Prospects of Capital Market in Bd Essay Example

Problems and Prospects of Capital Market in Bd Essay Problems and Prospects of Capital Market In Bangladesh What is Capital Market? A capital market is a market for securities (debt or equity), where business enterprises (companies) and governments can raise long-term funds. It is defined as a market in which money is provided for periods longer than a year, as the raising of short-term funds takes place on other markets (e. g., the money market). The capital market includes the stock market (equity securities) and the bond market (debt). Financial regulators, such as Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for Bangladesh or for the UK Financial Services Authority (FSA) oversee the capital markets in their designated jurisdictions to ensure that investors are protected against fraud, among other duties. Capital markets may be classified as primary markets and secondary markets. In primary markets, new stock or bond issues are sold to investors via a mechanism known as underwriting. In the secondary markets, existing securities are sold and bought among investors or traders, usually on a securities exchange, over-the-counter, or elsewhere. What is stock? Stock is a security issued in the form of shares that represent ownership interests in a company. There is both common stock (often simply called stock, shares, or equity) and preferred stock. Common stock holders elect the companys board of directors and actively participate in the companys success (or failure) through a rising (or falling) stock price. Common stock holders may also receive dividends, provided the company is profitable, obligations to commercial creditors and bondholders have been met, and the board sees fit to declare them. We will write a custom essay sample on Problems and Prospects of Capital Market in Bd specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Problems and Prospects of Capital Market in Bd specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Problems and Prospects of Capital Market in Bd specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer How can it be traded? For example if you want to transfer your part of ownership of the firm to other then you should sell the deed of ownership to someone else. In that case, you have to maintain some papers. For example, a sale deed will be signed and the deed will be registered in government registry office. In case of stock when you buy stock/share of a certain company you will be given a share certificate. This certificate certifies that you own that much part of the company. In addition, you have to register your ownership certificate with companys register. However, due to some problems with paper certificate (such as copied certificate, maintenance of huge paper certificates) a new system of electronic stock (dematerialized share) is made. In this system, your stock is preserved in an electronic system rather delivering you the paper shares. Moreover, you do not need to register your ownership. The ownership is automatically transferred to you and preserved in an automatic system. This system is called Central Depository Bangladesh Limited (CDBL). What is stock exchange? A stock exchange is an entity which provides trading facilities for stock brokers and traders, to trade stocks and other securities. Stock exchanges also provide facilities for the issue and redemption of securities as well as other financial instruments and capital events including the payment of income and dividends. The securities traded on a stock exchange include: shares issued by companies, unit trusts, derivatives, pooled investment products and bonds. To be able to trade a security on a certain stock exchange, it has to be listed there. Usually there is a central location at least for recordkeeping, but trade is less and less linked to such a physical place, as modern markets are electronic networks, which give them advantages of speed and cost of transactions. For example Dhaka Stock Exchange has a electronic trading system called TESA and Chittagong Stock Exchange has an electronic trading system called VECTOR. These two systems work as an arrangement to help buy/sell of listed securities. Capital Market Participants: The participants of capital market are mainly those who have a surplus of funds and those who have a deficit of funds. The persons having surplus money want to invest in capital market in hope of getting high returns on their investment. On the other hand, people with fund deficit try to get financing from the capital market by selling stocks and bonds. These two kinds of activities keep the capital market going. Surplus Unit: Surplus Unit has enough funds over all of their liabilities to invest in the capital market. It may broadly be classified into two investors (i) Individual Investors; (ii) Institutional Investors. i)Individual Investors: Individual Investors participate in the capital market through purchasing Govt. Bonds Notes, Public Limited Co. ’s shares, or mutual funds. (ii)Institutional Investors: When the institutional investors have surplus funds that are not needed for a short time period, they seek to make money from their cash surplus by purchasing securities from the market. Institutional Investors may be Commercial Banks, Insurance Companies, Leasing Companies, Investment C orporation Bank (ICB), Asset Management Companies, and various other companies. Deficit Unit: Deficit Unit usually takes loans or capital by selling bonds or shares to the surplus Unit to arrange necessary funds for investment in different promising business. Deficit group may further be classified into two groups (i) Government; (ii) Public Limited companies. (i)Government: The Government of Bangladesh always experiences its expending requirements exceed their tax revenues. To balance this difference, it needs to collect fund through borrowing. Government also borrows on behalf of nationalized industries, municipalities, local authorities and other public sector bodies. It can borrow by selling Treasury Bonds and Treasury Notes to the surplus Unit through capital market. (ii)Public Limited Companies: Public Limited Companies arrange their equity capital and debt capital by selling shares bonds or debentures respectively to the surplus unit for the purpose of fund modernization or future business expansion. DIAGRAM OF FINANCIAL MARKET Dhaka Stock Exchange Dhaka Stock Exchange (Generally known as DSE) is the main stock exchange of Bangladesh. It is located in Motijheel at the heart of the Dhaka city. It was incorporated in 1954. Dhaka stock exchange is the first stock exchange of the country. The management and operation of Dhaka Stock Exchange is entrusted on a 25 members Board of Director. Among them 12 are elected from DSE members, another 12 are selected from different trade bodies and relevant organizations. The CEO is the 25th ex-officio member of the board. As of January 20, 2010, the Dhaka Stock Exchange had 444 listed securities with a combined market capitalization of TK. 2,049. 34 billion. Chittagong Stock Exchange BACKGROUND The Chittagong Stock Exchange (CSE) began its journey in 10th October of 1995 from Chittagong City through the cry-out trading system with the promise to create a state-of-the art bourse in the country. Founder members of the proposed Chittagong Stock Exchange approached the Bangladesh Government in January 1995 and obtained the permission of the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 12, 1995 for establishing the countrys second stock exchange. The Exchange comprised of twelve Board members, presided by Mr. Amir Khosru Mahmud Chowdhury (MP) and run by an independent secretariat from the very first day of its inception. CSE was formally opened by then Honorable Prime Minister of Bangladesh on November 4, 1995. As of January 20, 2010, the Chittagong Stock Exchange had 227 listed securities with a combined market capitalization of TK. 1,640 billion. The key Indicators of DSE and CSE are shown in the following table: (as of January20, 2010) Sl. No. Indicators DSECSE 01. Total No. of Listed Companies 282209 02. Total No. of listed Mutual Fund 1816 03. Total No. of listed Bond Debenture1362 04. Total No. of Listed Securities (01+02+03)436227 05. Total No. of shares4,428,589,137414,612,267 06. Total Issued Capital (Share)TK. 230. 62 billionTK. 223 billion 07. Total Market Capitalization (TK. )TK. 2,049. 34 billion. TK. 1,640 billion. 08. Total Market Capitalization (US $)29. 36 billion23. 5 billion 09. General IndexDGEN 4956. 73CSCX 9346. 70 The Potentiality of the Bangladesh Capital Market The capital market is the engine of growth for an economy, and performs a critical role in acting as an intermediary between savers and companies seeking additional financing for business expansion. Vibrant capital is likely to support a robust economy. While lending by commercial banks provides valuable initial support for corporate growth, a developed stock market is an important pre-requisite for moving into a more mature growth phase with more sophisticated conglomerates. Today, with a US $ 89. 04 billion (TK. 6149. 43 billion)economy and per capita income of roughly US $621, Bangladesh should really focus on improving governance and developing advanced market products, such as derivatives, swaps etc. Despite a challenging political environment and widespread poverty, Bangladesh has achieved significant milestones on the social development side. With growth reaching 5. 8 percent in 2009, the economy has accelerated to an impressive level. It is noteworthy that the leading global investment banks, Citi, Goldman Sachs, JP Morgan and Merrill Lynch have all identified Bangladesh as a key investment opportunity. The Dhaka Stock Exchange Index is at a 10-year high, however, the capital market in Bangladesh is still underdeveloped, and its development is imperative for full realization of the countrys development potential. It is encouraging to see that the capital market of Bangladesh is growing, albeit at a slower pace than many would like, with market development still at a nascent stage. The market has seen a lot of developments since the inception of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in 1993. After the bubble burst of 1996, the capital market has attracted a lot more attention, importance and awareness, which have led to the infrastructure we have in the market today. The Recent Surge in the Capital Market The Dhaka and Chittagong Stock Exchange Index was at a 10-year high in the 2009 year end. DSE General Index rose at 4,800 and CSE SCX rose at 8560 in the year end of 2009 which made it Asias one of the top performers. The steady investment atmosphere prevailing throughout 2009 is considered one of the main reasons behind this surge. Good return prospects, stable market growth, and uninterrupted trading as a result of political stability attracted foreign investors to invest in local securities. The banking sector, followed by the power, pharmaceutical and cement sectors, received the most foreign investment. The government has also attracted investors by pledging to sell securities of state enterprises. The state-owned companies Jamuna Oil Ltd, Meghna Petroleum Ltd, and Titas Gas Ltd debuted in the bourses in 2008. The P/E ratio now stands at least 20x as compared to 14.1x for emerging markets. It seems sustainable if the planned big IPOs of a few SOEs and the other telecom companies like Grameen Phone Ltd. take place in the market. More such large issues are required, which can emerge out of the energy, infrastructure and public sectors. Challenges Ahead of the Capital Market 1. Information Asymmetry Access to credible information is restricted Retail investors lack dedicated investment process infrastructure. Forced to look to brokers for advice that may consist of market rumors. Syndicate of large investors manipulate the market through price inflation, pump and dump strategies. 2. Supply Side Constraints Lack of fundamentally sound scrips as companies prefer traditional bank finance to capital markets Need to encourage listing of good scrips in the market. Reducing supply side constraints generates liquidity, reducing scope for price manipulation. 3. Lack of Professional Portfolio Management Ratio of institutional-to-retail investors remains low Institutional investors bring stability through non speculative long term investments. Listing of more mutual funds can be a starting point to increasing institutional activity. 4. Valuation Disparity Value of scrips is subject to speculative trading rather than sound fundamentals, resulting in market volatility Education of investors, overall development of capital markets through time can address this issue. 5. Lack of a Formal Debt Market Bangladesh does not have established secondary debt market Markets are unable to provide short term financing solutions to corporations, i. e., commercial paper. Listing of debt instruments from quality issuers and institutional trading can increase activity. Introduction of BASEL II guidelines by Bangladesh Bank likely to encourage banks to raise capital through debt instruments in 2010. 6. Quality Research and Analysis Development of quality equity research in the country is yet to match the growth of local capital markets Quality research increases investor awareness, reducing speculative trading and market volatility. 7. Central Co-ordination of Regulators Top down co-ordination between Bangladesh Bank, SEC and related bodies would: Streamline regulatory processes. Reduce time required for quality issuers and new capital markets products to reach mark. Recent Regulations and Opportunity Space in the Capital Market 1. Strengthening of Surveillance Following the stock market crash of 1996, measures have been taken to prevent future incidents of the sort Constant market surveillance by the SEC. Increasing standards of corporate governance. Dematerialization of Trading. Focus on investor education – establishment of Capital Markets Institute. 2. Introduction of BASEL II Guidelines Introduction of BASEL II guidelines by Bangladesh Bank likely to encourage banks to raise capital through debt instruments in 2010 Issuance of debt and equity by banks through capital markets likely to generate increasing liquidity. 3. Introduction of Book building / Price Discovery Introduction of book building is a big step towards developing Bangladesh capital markets Book building reduces risk of undervaluation for issuers. Ensures fair pricing by factoring in demand, likely to encourage listing of large, well-reputed companies. SEC qualifying conditions for book-building set certain criteria for companies to be eligible. 4. Infrastructure Development through Capital Markets Focus on infrastructure development may see Government of Bangladesh (GoB) seek capital markets as an avenue for financing GoB plans to issue TK. 5. 0 billion (US$72mm) in securitized bonds to fund Bangabandhu Bridge. Cabinet approval for the issue of TK. 42 billion (US$650mm) in bonds to fund Padma Bridge likely. Plans to construct second bridge over Padma at a cost of US$1. 89bn signals potential financing needs. Further GoB funding requirements arise from needed development in the power sector and development of roads and highways. Bangladesh Capital Markets – The Future 1. Institutionalization of the Market We expect to see more institutional investors bringing long term commitment and liquidity to the market -Longer investment horizons reduce market volatility. -Institutional investment strategies are fundamental focused rather than speculative. 2. Listing Fundamentally Sound, Well-reputed Companies With the improvement of corporate governance, we can attract sound corporations to come to capital markets -Quality scrips provide liquidity and motivation for educated investors to participate in capital markets. -Listing of large, reputable corporations attract foreign investments, increases liquidity. -Introduction of new scrips in different sectors provides investors with broader options. -Recent addition of telecom sector likely to generate interest among other large cap companies to list. -Inclusion of well reputed, large companies will reduce ability of select â€Å"investor syndicates† to manipulate prices. 3. Flotation of Mutual Funds Strong pipeline for listing of mutual funds (US $ 300mm in mutual funds expected to enter the market by mid 2010) -Provide retail investors with safer, indirect market access, preventing wealth capital losses. -Reduces dependency on retail investors, allowing institutions to bring commitment and stability to the market. -Bring much needed market stability that only institutional investors can provide. 4. Facilitation of Private Equity Investments Recent introduction of certain foreign private equity investors in Bangladesh -Provide stable flow of capital given mid to long term investment horizon of PE investments. High risk hurdles and selective investments direct PE funding to quality local corporations. 5. Inclusion in Global Indices Bangladeshi companies are now included in global indices -The Dow Jones SAFE Index already includes 5 Bangladeshi banks and a power company. -Inclusion of high quality scrips in the index can result in inclusion of our index in global indices such as MSCI Emerging Markets, etc. Other Major Future Prospects Within the next 2 years, 26 large profitable state-owned enterprises (SOEs) are going to be listed under Direct Listing Method to increase depth of the market. The Private Public Partnership (PPP) will be implemented through capital market for financing government projects. The Telecom companies (Aktel, Teletalk, and Banglalink) are interested to be listed in capital market like Grameen Phone. British High Commissioner of Bangladesh Stephen Evans has recently said about 1 million Bangladeshis living in UK are willing to invest in the capital market. Bangladesh Shipping Corporation (BSC) is almost ready to float the share and it is expected that it will raise TK. 50 billion from the market Power and energy sectors demand for capital is 5 to 10 billion dollar within short time to meet the immediate needs of 5000 MW power demand. Introducing book-building method that is well accepted by everybody and it is expected that the SOEs will also be off-loaded through the method. A deep-sea port requiring 1 billion dollar is going to start with a policy decision that it will also be listed. Export oriented food processing industry needs huge capital and technical capacity to meet the growing standards in global market for marine food, fruits and poultry. IT sector with our talented developers, yet to demonstrate the massive potentials of software industry of the country. Problems of the Capital Market in Bangladesh The unexpected rise and fall in share prices are mostly followed from the general confidence of the investors about political stability, euphoria of investment in shares, prospect of quick capital gains, a vacuum in respect of institutional presence in the share market, monopolistic dominance of member brokers, inefficiency of the SECS to cope up with the developments, xistence to Kerb market, and absence of proper application of circuit breaker etc. Delivery versus payment mechanism was used as one of the main vehicles of manipulation. Kerb market gave birth fake and forged share certificates. Although there are increasing trends in all the indicators, DSE, CSE are not free from problems. The problems of DSE, CSE may be summarized as under: 1. Price manipulation It has been observed that the share values of some profitable companies has been increased fictitiously some items that hampers the smooth operation of Stock market. 2. Delays in Settlement: Financing procedures and delivery of securities sometimes take an unusual long time for which the money is blocked from nothing. 3. Irregulations in Dividends: Some companies do not hold Annual General Meeting (AGM) and eventually declare dividends that confused the shareholders about the financial positions of the company 4. Selection of Membership: Some members being the directors of listed companies of DSE, CSE look for their own interest using their internal information of share market. 5. Improper financial statement: Many companies do not focus real position of the company as some audit firms involve in corruption while preparing financial statements. As a result the shareholders as well as investors do not have any idea about position of that company OTHER PROBLEMS The concept of centralization of the securities market has not been implemented that arises technical problems and political infighting. The intrinsic values for securities traded are sometimes estimated without considering the current market prices of the securities. The absence of comprehensive legal and supervisory framework. Lack of skilled manpower as well as financial and non-financial institutions involved in the securities market. The lack of proper policy framework that provides incentives and protection to investors. The dominance of bigger public sector and borrowing of public sector as well as government form the institutional sources rather than the market. Suggestions to Improve the Activities of Capital Market To introduce automated monitoring system that may control price manipulation, malpractices and inside trading. To introduce full computerized system for settlement of transactions. To force the listed companies to publish their annual reports with actual and proper information that can ensure the interests of investors. To control and abolish kerb market form premises of stock market. To take remedial action against the issues of fake certificates. The Composite Quotation System (CQS) should be introduced and implemented that available the exchange specialist bid-ask quotes to the subscribers. To create arrangement to set-up merchant banks, investment banks and floatation of more mutual funds particularly in the private sectors. Banks, insurance companies and other financial institution should be encouraged deal in share business directly. The brokers should not be allowed to deal in the Scripps on their own accounts. The management of DSE and CSE should be vested with professionals and should not in any way be linked with the ownership of stock exchange and other firms. Conclusion To expedite the market development process, it may be a good idea to decide on certain milestones and link them to the disbursement of Development Credit Support of the World Bank. The government is making good progress in other sectors, including monetary management, corporatisation of public-sector banks and others through this linkage. The missing link between the SEC, Bangladesh Bank, Bangladesh Telecom Regulatory Commission and other regulatory bodies is now getting established. Individually, they were not serving each other’s interests, and there was no effective coordination among them, hence the country was deprived of great initiatives. A dedicated financial market cell at the Ministry of Finance could be formed to coordinate with these regulators as well as other ministries. In terms of creating market depth, more state-owned-enterprises that are profitable should be listed. The supply of securities can be increased if the SOEs are allowed to operate through the stock exchanges. Floatation of SOE scrips is expected to expand the market by couple of times. Corporatisation of SOEs will bring in transparency as well as confidence on the government financial system. The Bangladesh capital market still has a long way to go. The recent measures taken by the transitional government have already begun to influence the markets positively. If more investor friendly policy reforms were to be implemented, the capital market will undoubtedly play a critical role in leading Bangladesh towards being the next Asian tiger with growth comparable to India, Vietnam and the other most dynamic economies in the region. Appended Part Index DSE: Dhaka Stock Exchange CSE: Chittagong stock Exchange DGEN: DSE General Index CSCX: CSE Selective Categories Index SOEs: State-Owned Enterprises SEC: Securities Exchange Commission CQS: Composite Quotation System AGM: Annual General Meeting BSC: Bangladesh Shipping Corporation GoB: Government of Bangladesh FSA: Financial Services Authority in UK IPO: Initial Public Offering CDBL: Central Depository Bangladesh Limited BSB: Bangladesh Shilpa Bank BSRS: Bangladesh Shilpa Rin Shashta ICB: Investment Corporation of Bangladesh Data Sources http://www. dsebd. org http://www. csebd. com http://www. scribd. com/document http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Capital_market http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Stock_exchange

Monday, November 25, 2019

The narrator presents the boys as being inexperienced and childish in order to put emphasis on their obliviousness Essay Example

The narrator presents the boys as being inexperienced and childish in order to put emphasis on their obliviousness Essay Example The narrator presents the boys as being inexperienced and childish in order to put emphasis on their obliviousness Essay The narrator presents the boys as being inexperienced and childish in order to put emphasis on their obliviousness Essay Hes done it before, with the murders committed by Mr. Gort, for instance, and the building of the transcontinental railway, or the underground passage between our two houses. The narrator uses bombastic language in order to accentuate their innocence and naivety. This is evident of their foolhardiness, as the two boys are constantly partaking in their own childhood adventures without contemplating the possible ramifications. It is blatantly exaggerated and puts emphasis on Keiths manipulative and domineering nature, as Stephen seems to play along with him. Moreover, these are antecedent events which further accentuate their obliviousness, as they are unaware of what they are up against. Therefore, the narrator presents them as such in order to emphasise the fact that they are out of their depth. The narrator presents Stephen as misled in order to emphasise his obliviousness. I understand now that it will involve frightening difficulties and wrenching conflicts of loyalty. I have a profound intimation of the solemnity and sadness of things. The narrator uses war connotations, such as wrenching conflicts of loyalty, in order to put emphasis on the gravity of their situation. This is a microcosm, in which Keith and Stephens world is perceived as being a war or conflict of some sort and acts as an embodiment of the Second World War, in which it is a sinister world of lies and espionage, as in the Second World War, many people changed sides. Furthermore, frightening difficulties can be seen as an allusion to the Second World War, as the many forces were to face a whole variety of hindering difficulties. In addition to this, wrenching conflicts of loyalty is a cataphoric reference as Stephen finds himself in a troublesome predicament at one point or another: saving Keith from a caning or withholding information to protect Mrs. Hayward. Furthermore, sibilance is used in solemnity and sadness, in order to emphasise the sombreness of their new adventure, with Stephen unaware of what is really going on. This is, in effect, a met anarrative, which puts emphasis on the various effects of espionage, as Keith and Stephens spywork acts as a minor representation of espionage as a whole in society. Therefore, Stephens gullibility is presented in order to foretell his ultimate exposure to the actual realities. The narrator presents Keiths family as chaotic so as to put emphasis on his misinterpretations regarding the Haywards. His family have taken on the heroic proportions of characters in a legend noble father and traitorous mother playing out the never-ending conflict between good and evil, between light and dark. Dramatic irony is used, as we know that Mrs. Hayward is not a traitor at all, yet at the same time is having an affair with Aunt Dees husband, Uncle Peter. This emphasises the sexual awakening and maturing of Stephen, as he has not been exposed to such things thus far. Furthermore, oxymorons are used, good and evil, between light and dark, which is ironic, as Ted is a sadistic, abusive husband and father whilst Mrs. Hayward is a victimised wife, someone who has engaged in an affair with her sisters husband due to the abusiveness of her own spouse. Stephen is not aware of these happenings until later on, and so it accentuates their respective facades, as Ted is a former war hero yet at the same time is a manic husband who abuses his wife and canes his son regularly, whilst Mrs. Hayward is a reserved wife and mother who is pleasant and described as being very attractive. Moreover, His family have taken on the heroic proportions of characters in a legend is both ironic and a hyperbole. It is ironic as Ted Hayward is a sadistic man who abuses his family, and because we later discover that Mrs. Hayward has entered an illicit affair with her sisters husband. It is also a hyperbole as it seems highly unlikely that commonplace people could attain the somewhat abnormal traits of characters from folklore. Therefore, Keiths family is depicted as being immersed in secrecy and as being vague in order to conceal their intentions. Stephen is presented as inarticulate so as to emphasise his insecurities. I find it very difficult now to reconstruct what Im feeling its so large and complex. Perhaps the largeness of the feelings is the most noticeable thing about them. A paradox is used so as to put emphasis on the genuinely sad tinge of the writing, as Stephens low self-esteem is pathetic and it reveals that Stephen might not be a remotely interesting person, which accentuates how insecure Stephen is. Furthermore, largeness is italicised in order to put emphasis on Stephens numerous emotions. Moreover, one can infer that Keith is a foil used to oppose Stephens strong values and so this accentuates his vulnerabilities. Due to Keith, he finds it hard to express himself. Therefore, Stephen is presented as being unable to express himself in order to emphasise Keiths hold over him.